There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., translocations and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g., tetraploids). Are They Development Strategies? The corn steep liquor, a plentiful watery byproduct of maize wet milling process, is widely used in the biochemical industry and research as a culture medium to grow many kinds of microorganisms.[102]. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. Within the United States, the usage of maize for human consumption constitutes only around 1/40th of the amount grown in the country. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. [108] However, introduction in the northern latitudes of the US of tropical maize for biofuels, and not for human or animal consumption, may potentially alleviate this. Linda Campbell Franklin, "Corn," in Andrew F. Smith (ed. [96] The process was later used in the cuisine of the American South to prepare corn for grits and hominy. In 1939, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn. For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. Maize is produced mainly in North West province, the Free State, the Mpumalanga Highveld and the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. H raw sorghum Smith)", "A Unique 33-kD Cysteine Proteinase Accumulates in Response to Larval Feeding in Maize Genotypes Resistant to Fall Armyworm and Other Lepidoptera", "The impact of corn rootworm protected biotechnology traits in the United States", Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management, "Chapter 8: Improvement of maize diets; from corporate document: Maize in human nutrition", "Corn for Home Heat: A Green Idea That Never Quite Popped", "Maize feedstocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification", "Fuel Ethanol Plants – Thermal Kinetics Engineering, PLLC", "Revista Envío – Are Free Trade Agreements Free? Maize is also used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Scientific Name: Busseola fusca ... Maize-legume rotation sequences improve the supply of nitrogen in the soil and the nutritional status of maize, which compared to maize-maize sequences. ", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 13:28. [79] Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation. The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. E raw cassava Hoffman, L. and A. Baker. Sclerospora maydis Reinking; Sclerospora philippinensis W. Weston; International Common Names. As maize matures, DIMBOA levels and resistance to the corn borer decline. CABI is a registered EU trademark. "The World: A History", p. 470. [7] Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Maize breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. [65][68] As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant maize varieties were grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the European Union, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months), the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inedibility. Maize (/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. Heuzé V., Tran G., Edouard N., Lebas F., 2017. corn. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate, even more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities. Maize is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". They are often pale yellow and 18 cm (7 in) in length, like tufts of hair in appearance. Maize is used to produce cornstarch, a common ingredient in home cooking and many industrialized food products. This protein has been linked to a rare and understudied allergy to maize in humans. More information on the definitions of … 2: Plant Products of Biotechnology, 2011", "Kraft Recalls Taco Shells With Bioengineered Corn", "grassy tillers1 promotes apical dominance in maize and responds to shade signals in the grasses", "Chapter 1.1 Corn, strange and marvelous: but is a definitive origin known? [63], Genetically modified (GM) maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in 2016. [89] The area of harvested maize was forecast to be 87 million acres, an increase of 7% over 2015. An unusual use for maize is to create a "corn maze" (or "maize maze") as a tourist attraction. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture. Kingdom: Plantae. [23] Some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. Estimating the substitution of distillers'grains for corn and soybean meal in the U.S. feed complex. [87], In 2016, maize production was forecast to be over 15 billion bushels, an increase of 11% over 2014 American production. When the grain is used for feed, the rest of the plant (the corn stover) can be used later as fodder, bedding (litter), or soil amendment. [52] The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments. Hybrid seeds are distributed in Africa by the Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa project. In most regions today, maize grown in residential gardens is still often planted manually with a hoe, whereas maize grown commercially is no longer planted manually but rather is planted with a planter. In the late 19th century, pellagra reached epidemic proportions in parts of the southern US, as medical researchers debated two theories for its origin: the deficiency theory (which was eventually shown to be true) said that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory said that pellagra was caused by a germ transmitted by stable flies. These "futures" are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) under ticker symbol C. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, September, and December.[109]. Today, all such technologies, from entirely manual harvesting to entirely mechanized, are still in use to some degree, as appropriate to each farm's needs, although the thoroughly mechanized versions predominate, as they offer the lowest unit costs when scaled to large farm operations. Another well-known example is the Field of Corn sculpture in Dublin, Ohio, where hundreds of concrete ears of corn stand in a grassy field. A raw yellow dent corn [75][76][77], Doebley was part of the team that first published, in 2002, that maize had been domesticated only once, about 9,000 years ago, and then spread throughout the Americas. Wolfgang Goettel, Joachim Messing. [13], According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes. Considering the low average maize grain yields that are still pervasive in farmers’ fields, meeting the projected increase demand for maize grain in Africa presents a challenge. The resulting DNA sequence data was deposited immediately into GenBank, a public repository for genome-sequence data. Scientific Name. [14] The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America.[15]. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption. Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer. These mutations, ts4 and Ts6, prohibit the development of the stamen while simultaneously promoting pistil development. SCIENTIFIC NAME OF CORN – In this topic, we are going to know and identify the binomial or scientific name of corn. Class lollipopsida.order poales family poaceae genus zea .specie z mays Setosphaeria turcica; the asexual stage name is Exserohilum turcicum. It was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and then spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere.[25]. In addition to being consumed directly by humans (often in the form of masa), maize is also used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. coronafaciens (halo blight), Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato), Puccinia purpurea (rust (of grasses, sorghum)), Pyrilla perpusilla (sugarcane planthopper), Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut), Rattus rattus mindanensis (common Philippine field rat), Rhabdoscelus obscurus (sugarcane weevil borer), Rhopalosiphum insertum (apple-grass aphid), Rice stripe virus (rice stripe tenuivirus), Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot), Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode), Sclerospora graminicola (downy mildew of pearl millet), Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant), Sophonia orientalis (two-spotted leafhopper), Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (armyworm), Spoladea recurvalis (Hawaiian beet webworm), Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite), Tetranychus pacificus (Pacific spider mite), Urophorus humeralis (pineapple sap beetle), Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard), Xanthomonas albilineans (leaf scald of sugarcane), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. [83], Maize was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters. Many of those who found themselves without work were small-scale maize growers."). The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. The pericarp of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as "caryopsis", typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the "seed". In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize was "knee-high by the Fourth of July", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does. "Corn" redirects here. Weeds are controlled through the use of herbicides, and no cultivation tillage is done during the growing season. Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize. The maximum size of kernels is reputedly 2.5 cm (1 in). Maize itself is sometimes used for temporary architectural detailing when the intent is to celebrate the fall season, local agricultural productivity and culture. Subphylum: Angiospermae. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. [27][28] In the United States,[27] Canada,[29] Australia, and New Zealand,[30] corn primarily means maize; this usage started as a shortening of "Indian corn". The scientific name for corn is zea mays corn belongs to the kingdom plantae. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in Mexico's southwestern highlands, and also known as Balsas teosinte, as being the crop wild relative that is genetically most similar to modern maize. It has also been known as Helminthosporium turcicum. The domesticated crop originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food crops. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico", National Academy of Sciences. It is the main ingredient of corn tortilla, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. Maize (corn) Zea mays 12 1.1.3 Maize (corn) for silage Zea mays 12 1.7.3.1 Maize (hybrid) Zea mays 12 1.1.3.1 Maize, ordinary Zea mays 12 1.1.3.2 Mandarin Citrus reticulata 324 2.1.1.2 Mangel (fodder beet) Beta vulgaris 81 1.7.5.0.5 Mango Mangifera indica 315 2.1.6.0.8 Maize definition is - a tall annual cereal grass (Zea mays) originally domesticated in Mexico and widely grown for its large elongated ears of starchy seeds : corn. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2011). maize. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Corn is used as livestock feed, as human food, as biofuel, and as raw material in industry. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": highly repetitive heterochromatic domains that stain darkly. Before World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand. Because of its shallow roots, maize is susceptible to droughts, intolerant of nutrient-deficient soils, and prone to be uprooted by severe winds. [8] Subsidies in the United States help to account for the high level of cultivation of maize in the United States and the fact that the U.S. is the world's largest maize producer. [26] It is known by other names around the world. PRSCPH As a condition for access you agree that the Commonwealth makes no representations or warranties regarding the database and does not accept any liability in connection with reliance on the information contained within the database (including by third parties you in any way allow or assist to access the information). maize. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. This theory about the origin of maize has been refuted by modern genetic testing, which refutes Mangelsdorf's model and the fourth listed above.[72]:40. There are two major species of the genus Zea (out of six total): Zea mays (maize) and Zea diploperennis, which is a perennial type of teosinte. The technologies mentioned in the previous paragraph enable low-till and no-till farming. The latter produce sheaves that can be shocked. Philippine downy mildew of maize; Other Scientific Names. Coarse maize meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the US (or hominy grits in the South) or the food called mieliepap in South Africa and sadza, nshima, ugali and other names in other parts of Africa. The program began in the 1980s. In the United States, maize ears along with tobacco leaves are carved into the capitals of columns in the United States Capitol building. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn), Acalymma vittatum (striped cucumber beetle), Achatina fulica (giant African land snail), Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Indian cotton jassid), Aphelenchoides arachidis (groundnut testa nematode), Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode), Brevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite), Burkholderia andropogonis (bacterial leaf stripe of sorghum and corn), Burkholderia gladioli (leaf spot of orchids), Chilo infuscatellus (yellow top borer of sugarcane), Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth), Cochliobolus geniculatus (root rot: cereals), Cochliobolus miyabeanus (brown leaf spot of rice), Curvularia australiensis (leaf blight of grasses), Diabrotica balteata (banded cucumber beetle), Diabrotica undecimpunctata (spotted cucumber beetle), Diatraea saccharalis (sugarcane stalk borer), Dickeya chrysanthemi (bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals), Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode), Edessa meditabunda (green and brown stink bug), Eldana saccharina (African sugarcane borer), Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis), Fusarium pallidoroseum (fungal gummosis (of Leucaena)), Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot), Gloeocercospora sorghi (zonate leaf spot), Gonocephalum macleayi (southern false wireworm), Gonocephalum simplex (dusty brown beetle), Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato), Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug), Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode), Hirschmanniella oryzae (rice root nematode), Leifsonia xyli subsp. 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